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The perennial fruit tree proteogenomics atlas: a spatial map of the sweet cherry proteome and transcriptome

Aliki Xanthopoulou, Theodoros Moysiadis, Christos Bazakos, Evangelos Karagiannis, Ioanna Karamichali, George Stamatakis, Martina Samiotaki, Maria Manioudaki, Michail Michailidis, Panagiotis Madesis, Ioannis Ganopoulos, Athanassios Molassiotis and Georgia Tanou

Genome-wide transcriptome analysis provides systems-level insights into plant biology. Due to the limited depth of quantitative proteomics our understanding of gene–protein–complex stoichiometry is largely unknown in plants. Recently, the complexity of the proteome and its cell-/tissue-specific distribution have boosted the research community to the integration of transcriptomics and proteomics landscapes in a proteogenomic approach. Herein, we generated a quantitative proteome and transcriptome abundance atlas of 15 major sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., cv 'Tragana Edessis') tissues represented by 29 247 genes and 7584 proteins. Additionally, 199 984 alternative splicing events, particularly exon skipping and alternative 3′ splicing, were identified in 23 383 transcribed regions of the analyzed tissues. Common signatures as well as differences between mRNA and protein quantities, including genes encoding transcription factors and allergens, within and across the different tissues are reported. Using our integrated dataset, we identified key putative regulators of fruit development, notably genes involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and flavonoids. We also provide proteogenomic-based evidence for the involvement of ethylene signaling and pectin degradation in cherry fruit ripening. Moreover, clusters of genes and proteins with similar and different expression and suppression trends across diverse tissues and developmental stages revealed a relatively low RNA abundance-to-protein correlation. The present proteogenomic analysis allows us to identify 17 novel sweet cherry proteins without prior protein-level annotation evidenced in the currently available databases. To facilitate use by the community, we also developed the Sweet Cherry Atlas Database (https://grcherrydb.com/) for viewing and data mining these resources. This work provides new insights into the proteogenomics workflow in plants and a rich knowledge resource for future investigation of gene and protein functions in Prunus species.